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ENDANGERED, THREATENED, AND SPECIAL CONCERN WILDLIFE SPECIES

Eastern cougar or mountain lion.  Photo from www.dnr.state.wv.us/wvwildlife/cougar.htmNorthern Harrier.  Photo from www.glo.state.tx.us/wetnet/ species/harrier.htmlBog turtle.  Photo from http://www.enature.comBuckmoth.  Photo from entweb.clemson.edu/museum/webonly/ local/lmoth/lmoth10.htmYellow lady's slipper.  Photo from www.bwca.cc/wildflowers/flowerimages/ lorrainespictures/

There are 599 species (amphibians, birds, fish, invertebrates, mammals, plants, and reptiles) in Connecticut listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern.  At least one hundred of those species are believed to exist in Windham County, but not necessarily in Woodstock.  A thorough investigation of all sections of Woodstock has not been conducted; therefore additional listed species may exist in town.

The following species list is based on the most recent information available concerning designated endangered, threatened or of special concern in Windham County. 

Definitions:

  • "Endangered Species" (E) means any native species documented by biological research and inventory to be in danger of extirpation throughout all or a significant portion of its range within the state and to have no more than five occurrences in the state, and any species determined to be an "endangered species" pursuant to the federal Endangered Species Act.
  • "Threatened Species" (T) means any native species documented by biological research and inventory to be likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range within the sate and to have no more than nine occurrences in the state, and any species determined to be a "threatened species" pursuant to the federal Endangered Species Act, except for such species determined to be endangered by the Commissioner in accordance with section 4 of this act.
  • Species of Special Concern" (SC) means any native plant species or any native nonharvested wildlife species documented by scientific research and inventory to have a naturally restricted range or habitat in the state, to be at a low population level, to be in such high demand by man that its unregulated taking would be detrimental to the conservation of its population or has been extirpated from the state.

This list is excerpted from Appendix C of A Plan of Open Space and Conservation.  For more information, and the entire list of regulated species, see the State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection website on Connecticut's Endangered Species. A PDF file of regulated species for Windham County is also available.

Common Name Scientific Name Typical Habitat

AMPHIBIANS (updated 11/ 17/2008)

T Blue-spotted salamander Ambystoma laterale Deciduous forests (W)
T Northern Spring Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus Deciduous forests? (W)
E Eastern Spadefoot Scaphiopus holbrookii Arid to semi-arid areas, such as fields, farmland, dunes, and woodlands with sandy or loose soils.  Breed in temporary bodies of water (e.g., vernal pools), flooded fields and forested wetlands. (W)
BIRDS
E Sharp-shinned hawk Accipiter striatus Large, remote, young forests. Breeds in dense coniferous forests, less often in deciduous forests. During migration and in winter, may be seen in almost any habitat. (W)
SC Northern saw-whet owl Aegolius acadicus Coniferous woodlands; in winter also in evergreen thickets and isolated pines. (W)
SC* Henslow's Sparrow * Ammodramus henslowii Moist or dry grasslands with scattered weeds and small shrubs (W)
E Grasshopper sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Open grassy and weedy meadows, pastures (W)
T Blue-winged teal (nesting populations only) Anas discors Marshes, shallow ponds, lakes
E Long-eared owl Asio otus Thick woods. Roosts in dense stands of evergreens or vine-covered thickets; breeds in woodlands or riverine woodland belts; forages in openings and old fields (W)
E American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus Freshwater and saltwater ponds (W)
SC Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus dry, open woodlands and canyons
E Northern harrier Circus cyaneus Open marshland and meadows (W)
SC Common raven Corvus corax coniferous forests and rocky coasts
SC Bobolink Dolichonyx orzivorus Grassland (W)
E Horned lark Eremophila alpestris large fields, open areas, shoreline beaches, grasslands, and agricultural areas
T American Kestrel Falco sparverius (W)
E Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes
erythrocephalus
Spotted in Pomfret in 2008 - not on DEP list
SC Savannah sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis fields, prairies, salt marshes, grassy dunes
E Pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps Streams, ponds, lakes and freshwater marshes.  Winters in estaurine and marine habitats (W)
T Purple martin Progne subis Open woodlands, residential areas, agricultural land
SC Eastern meadowlark Sturnella magna meadows, pastures and prairies; generally in open country during migration
E Barn owl Tyto alba Open areas, such as grassy or old fields, wet meadows and wetland edges, around farms and rural towns (W)

INVERTEBRATES

E Brook floater Alasmidonta varicosa (W)
SC A Noctuid moth (burgessi) Apamea burgessi (W)
SC Henry's Elfin Callophrys henrici (W)
T Frosted Elfin Callophrys irus (W)
SC Sparkling Jewelwing Calopteryx dimidiata (W)
T Catocala herodias gerhardi Herodias Underwing (W)
SC* A Noctuid moth (Cerata) Chaetaglaea cerata (W)
T Harris's Checkerspot Chlosyne harrisii (W)
SC Pine Barrens Tiger beetle Cicindela formosa generosa (W)
SC Tiger beetle (tranquebarica) Cincindela tranquebarica (W)
SC Scarlet Bluet Enallagma pictum (W)
T Sleepy Duskywing Erynnis brizo (W)
SC Horace's Duskywing Horace's Duskywing (W)
E Persius duskywing Erynnis persius persius (W)
SC Euchlaena madusaria Scrub Euchlaena (W)
SC A Noctuid Moth Eucoptocnemis fimbriaris (W)
T Mustached Clubtail Gomphus adelphus (W)
SC Aquatic snail Gyraulus circumstraitus (W)
E Buckmoth (Maia) Hemileuca maia maia (W)
SC American Rubyspot Hetaerina americana (W)
SC Scribbled Sallow Lepipolys perscripta (W)
SC Bog copper Lycaena epixanthe (W)
SC* Barrens Metarranthis Moth

Metarranthis apiciaria

(W)
E Hessel's Hairstreak Mitoura hesseli (W)
E Pitcher Plant Borer moth Papaipema? (maritima or sciata?) (W)
T Pink Sallow Psectraglaea carnosa (W)
SC A Noctuid moth Schinia spinosae (W)
E Banded bog skimmer Williamsonia lintneri (W)
SC A Noctuid Moth Zale curema (W)
SC A Noctuid Moth Zale obliqua (W)
SC Pine Barrens Zanclognatha Zanclognatha martha (W)

FISH

SC Banded sunfish Enneacanthus obesus  

MAMMALS

SC Eastern cougar* + Puma concolor couguar   (removed on 2008 list)
SC Southern bog lemming Synaptomys cooperi grassy meadows, sometimes forests, often dry broom sedge, seldom bogs

PLANTS

E Balsam fir x Abies balsamea A wide variety of upland and lowland sites, including alluvial flats, peatlands, and swamps
SC Virginia copperleaf Acalypha virginica  
E Sandplain gerardia + Agalinis acuta Found on dry, low-nutrient soils, this plant appears to depend upon disturbance (including fire) to persist
SC Arethusa * Arethusa bulbosa Obligate wetlands species
SC Arrowfeather Aristida purpurascens  
SC Purple milkweed Asclepias purpurascens  
T Mountain spleenwort Asplenium montanum  
E Bog aster Aster nemoralis Acidic bogs
SC Hervey's aster Aster X herveyi  
SC Sedge Carex bushii  
E Brown bog sedge Carex buxbaumii  
E Variable sedge Carex polymorpha  
SC Long-bracted green orchid Coeloglossum viride var. virescens  
SC Early coralroot Corallorhiza trifida  
SC Yellow lady's-slipper Cypripedium parviflorum  
SC Dillen's tick-trefoil Desmodium glabellum  
SC Trailing tick-trefoil Desmodium humifusum Dry, sandy or rocky woods, or along power line right-of-ways or railroad tracks
SC* Sessile-leaf tick-trefoil Desmodium sessilifolium  
SC Goldie's fern Dryopteris goldiana  
E Horse-tail spike-rush Eleocharis equisetoides Obligate wetlands species
T Hare's tail Eriophorum vaginatum var. spissum Obligate wetlands species
E Small white snakeroot Eupatorium aromaticum  
T Creeping Snowberry Gaultheria hispidula
T Dwarf huckleberry Gaylussacia dumosa var. bigeloviana  
SC* Dwarf rattlesnake plantain Goodyera repens var. ophioides  
SC Featherfoil Hottonia inflata Obligate wetlands species
E Water pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata Obligate wetlands species
T Ink-berry Ilex glabra
E Small whorled pogonia ^ Isotria medeoloides  
SC Creeping bush-clover Lespedeza repens  
SC Blazing star Liatris scariosa var. novae-angliae  
E Lily-leaved twayblade Liparis liliifolia  
SC Climbing fern Lygodium palmatum  
E Green adder's-mouth Malaxis unifolia Acidic soils such as seepy scrapes, bogs, sphagnous swamp edge, and semi-open young forest of mixed hemlocks and hardwoods.
T Water-marigold Megalodonta beckii  
E One-flowered wintergreen Moneses uniflora  
SC Slender mountain-ricegrass Oryzopsis pungens  
SC Violet wood-sorrel Oxalis violacea  
SC American ginseng Panax quinquefolius rich, mesic woods, often on slopes, over a limestone or marble parent material. The species requires adequate moisture (but not wet hollows or swamps) and a closed canopy.
SC* Panic grass Panicum xanthophysum  
T Swamp lousewort Pedicularis lanceolata  
SC Pale Green Orchid Platanthera flava
SC* Hooker orchid Platanthera hookeri  
SC Threadfoot Podostemum ceratophyllum Obligate wetlands species
E Capillary pondweed  Potamogeton pusillus var. gemmiparus  
E Vasey's Pondweed Potamogeton vaseyi
SC* Alleghany plum Prunus alleghaniensis Shrublands and borders of woods; dry ridges and slopes.
SC* One-sided pyrola * Pyrola secunda  
SC Shining rose Rosa nitida  
SC* Sea-side dock Rumex maritimus var. fueginus  
SC Arrowleaf Sagittaria subulata  
SC* Cotton bulrush Scirpus hudsonianus Obligate wetlands species
E Nutrush Scleria triglomerata  
SC Wild senna Senna hebecarpa  
T Three-leaved Solomon's-seal Smilacina trifolia obligate wetlands species
E Hyssop-leaf hedge-nettle Stachys hyssopifolia  
SC Northern stitchwort Stellaria borealis  
SC Canada violet Viola canadensis  

REPTILES

SC Wood turtle Clemmys insculpta Cool streams in deciduous woodlands, red maple swamps, marshy meadows, farm country
SC Eastern hognose snake Heterodon platirhinos Prefers open sandy-soil areas, thinly wooded upland hillsides, cultivated fields, woodland meadows
SC Eastern Box Turtle Terrapene carolina
SC Eastern Ribbon Snake Thamnophis sauritus
  • E Endangered SC Species of Special Concern
  • T Threatened
  • (W) Threatened, Endangered or Species of Special Concern located in Windham County. Does not necessarily mean they are found in Woodstock.
  • * Believed extirpated
  • + Federally endangered
  • ^ Federally threatened
  • x Native populations only

Sources:

  • Communications, State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Wildlife Division June 3, 2004.
  • Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Web Site http://www.dep.state.ct.us/burnatr/wildlife/ - List and  Facts sheets 
  • Assessment of potential range in Woodstock based on New England Wildlife: Habitat, Natural History, and Distribution, General technical Report NE-108, USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, 1986 and a County Report of Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species list from the Natural Diversity Database, dated 7/15/04.

More Information:

Conservation Commission
It's not a pretty picture, but there are reasons for hope.

-Jane Goodall